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We study how consumers interact with financial products and services to help identify potential problems in the marketplace and achieve better outcomes for all. Review our reports and analyses to help inform your decisions, policies, and practices. And, see reports that we periodically prepare about the CFPB.

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Recent Changes in Medical Collections on Consumer Credit Records

Medical collections on consumer credit reports have been an area of focus for CFPB research in recent years. In addition to studying trends in medical debt as a whole, CFPB reports have documented the burden of medical debt on older Americans, and the incidence of medical collections in rural counties in Appalachia and the Deep South region.
To Congress

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act CFPB Annual Report 2023

The Bureau’s annual report to Congress summarizes the Bureau’s activities to administer the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) in 2022 as the primary federal regulator of the consumer debt collection industry. This report also includes activities conducted by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in 2022 in relation to debt collection.
Consumer complaint

Office of Servicemember Affairs 2022 Annual Report

CFPB report highlighting consumer complaints received by the agency's Office of Servicemember Affairs. The report discusses issues related to digital payment apps also known as [person-to-person (P2P) payment platforms], and actions the agency has taken and the results it has achieved to protect the military community from financial harm.
Office of Research Publication

Consumer Credit Trends Report: Paid and Low-Balance Medical Collections on Consumer Credit Reports

This is part of a series of reports of consumer credit trends produced by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau using a longitudinal sample of approximately five million de-identified credit records from one of the three nationwide consumer reporting agencies.
Industry and markets

Medical debt burden in the United States

This report summarizes key areas of concern in medical debt collections and reporting. The report begins with a section describing the medical debt landscape. It then discusses the negative consequences of medical debt for consumers. Next, it outlines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical debt. The report concludes with a brief discussion of federal and state regulatory developments.
Consumer education and empowerment

Justice-Involved Individuals and the Consumer Financial Marketplace

This report outlines challenges faced by justice-involved people and their families in navigating their finances at each stage of the criminal justice system.