Comment for 1024.35 - Error Resolution Procedures
35(a) Notice of error.
1. Borrower's representative. A notice of error is submitted by a borrower if the notice of error is submitted by an agent of the borrower. A servicer may undertake reasonable procedures to determine if a person that claims to be an agent of a borrower has authority from the borrower to act on the borrower's behalf, for example, by requiring that a person that claims to be an agent of the borrower provide documentation from the borrower stating that the purported agent is acting on the borrower's behalf. Upon receipt of such documentation, the servicer shall treat the notice of error as having been submitted by the borrower.
2. Information request. A servicer should not rely solely on the borrower's description of a submission to determine whether the submission constitutes a notice of error under § 1024.35(a), an information request under § 1024.36(a), or both. For example, a borrower may submit a letter that claims to be a “Notice of Error” that indicates that the borrower wants to receive the information set forth in an annual escrow account statement and asserts an error for the servicer's failure to provide the borrower an annual escrow statement. Such a letter may constitute an information request under § 1024.36(a) that triggers an obligation by the servicer to provide an annual escrow statement. A servicer should not rely on the borrower's characterization of the letter as a “Notice of Error,” but must evaluate whether the letter fulfills the substantive requirements of a notice of error, information request, or both.
35(b) Scope of error resolution.
1. Noncovered errors. A servicer is not required to comply with § 1024.35(d), (e) and (i) with respect to a borrower's assertion of an error that is not defined as an error in § 1024.35(b). For example, the following are not errors for purposes of § 1024.35:
i. An error relating to the origination of a mortgage loan;
ii. An error relating to the underwriting of a mortgage loan;
iii. An error relating to a subsequent sale or securitization of a mortgage loan;
iv. An error relating to a determination to sell, assign, or transfer the servicing of a mortgage loan. However, an error relating to the failure to transfer accurately and timely information relating to the servicing of a borrower's mortgage loan account to a transferee servicer is an error for purposes of § 1024.35.
2. Unreasonable basis. For purposes of § 1024.35(b)(5), a servicer lacks a reasonable basis to impose fees that are not bona fide, such as:
i. A late fee for a payment that was not late;
ii. A charge imposed by a service provider for a service that was not actually rendered;
iii. A default property management fee for borrowers that are not in a delinquency status that would justify the charge; or
iv. A charge for force-placed insurance in a circumstance not permitted by § 1024.37.
35(c) Contact information for borrowers to assert errors.
1. Exclusive address not required. A servicer is not required to designate a specific address that a borrower must use to assert an error. If a servicer does not designate a specific address that a borrower must use to assert an error, a servicer must respond to a notice of error received by any office of the servicer.
2. Notice of an exclusive address. A notice establishing an address that a borrower must use to assert an error may be included with a different disclosure, such as a notice of transfer. The notice is subject to the clear and conspicuous requirement in § 1024.32(a)(1). If a servicer establishes an address that a borrower must use to assert an error, a servicer must provide that address to the borrower in the following contexts:
i. The written notice designating the specific address, required pursuant to § 1024.35(c) and § 1024.36(b).
ii. Any periodic statement or coupon book required pursuant to 12 CFR 1026.41.
iii. Any Web site the servicer maintains in connection with the servicing of the loan.
iv. Any notice required pursuant to §§ 1024.39 or .41 that includes contact information for assistance.
3. Multiple offices. A servicer may designate multiple office addresses for receiving notices of errors. However, a servicer is required to comply with the requirements of § 1024.35 with respect to a notice of error received at any such designated address regardless of whether that specific address was provided to a specific borrower asserting an error. For example, a servicer may designate an address to receive notices of error for borrowers located in California and a separate address to receive notices of errors for borrowers located in Texas. If a borrower located in California asserts an error through the address used by the servicer for borrowers located in Texas, the servicer is still considered to have received a notice of error and must comply with the requirements of § 1024.35.
4. Internet intake of notices of error. A servicer may, but need not, establish a process for receiving notices of error through email, Web site form, or other online intake methods. Any such online intake process shall be in addition to, and not in lieu of, any process for receiving notices of error by mail. The process or processes established by the servicer for receiving notices of error through an online intake method shall be the exclusive online intake process or processes for receiving notices of error. A servicer is not required to provide a separate notice to a borrower to establish a specific online intake process as an exclusive online process for receiving such notices of error.
35(e) Response to notice of error.
35(e)(1) Investigation and response requirements.
1. Notices alleging multiple errors; separate responses permitted. A servicer may respond to a notice of error that alleges multiple errors through either a single response or separate responses that address each asserted error.
1. Different or additional errors; separate responses permitted. A servicer may provide the response required by § 1024.35(e)(1)(ii) for different or additional errors identified by the servicer in the same notice that responds to errors asserted by the borrower pursuant to § 1024.35(e)(1)(i) or in a separate response that addresses the different or additional errors identified by the servicer.
35(e)(3) Time limits.
35(e)(3)(i) In general.
1. Foreclosure sale timing. If a servicer cannot comply with its obligations pursuant to § 1024.35(e) by the earlier of a foreclosure sale or 30 days after receipt of the notice of error, a servicer may cancel or postpone a foreclosure sale, in which case the servicer would meet the time limit in § 1024.35(e)(3)(i)(B) by complying with the requirements of § 1024.35(e) before the earlier of 30 days after receipt of the notice of error (excluding legal public holidays, Saturdays, and Sundays) or the date of the rescheduled foreclosure sale.
35(e)(3)(ii) Extension of time limit.
1. Notices alleging multiple errors; extension of time. A servicer may treat a notice of error that alleges multiple errors as separate notices of error and may extend the time period for responding to each asserted error for which an extension is permissible under § 1024.35(e)(3)(ii).
35(e)(4) Copies of documentation.
1. Types of documents to be provided. A servicer is required to provide only those documents actually relied upon by the servicer to determine that no error occurred. Such documents may include documents reflecting information entered in a servicer's collection system. For example, in response to an asserted error regarding payment allocation, a servicer may provide a printed screen-capture showing amounts credited to principal, interest, escrow, or other charges in the servicer's system for the borrower's mortgage loan account.
35(g) Requirements not applicable.
35(g)(1) In general.
1. New and material information. A dispute between a borrower and a servicer with respect to whether information was previously reviewed by a servicer or with respect to whether a servicer properly determined that information reviewed was not material to its determination of the existence of an error, does not itself constitute new and material information.
1. Examples of overbroad notices of error. The following are examples of notices of error that are overbroad:
i. Assertions of errors regarding substantially all aspects of a mortgage loan, including errors relating to all aspects of mortgage origination, mortgage servicing, and foreclosure, as well as errors relating to the crediting of substantially every borrower payment and escrow account transaction;
ii. Assertions of errors in the form of a judicial action complaint, subpoena, or discovery request that purports to require servicers to respond to each numbered paragraph; and
iii. Assertions of errors in a form that is not reasonably understandable or is included with voluminous tangential discussion or requests for information, such that a servicer cannot reasonably identify from the notice of error any error for which § 1024.35 requires a response.
35(h) Payment requirements prohibited.
1. Borrower obligation to make payments. Section 1024.35(h) prohibits a servicer from requiring a borrower to make a payment that may be owed on a borrower's account as a prerequisite to investigating or responding to a notice of error submitted by a borrower, but does not alter or otherwise affect a borrower's obligation to make payments owed pursuant to the terms of a mortgage loan. For example, if a borrower makes a monthly payment in February for a mortgage loan, but asserts an error relating to the servicer's acceptance of the February payment, § 1024.35(h) does not alter a borrower's obligation to make a monthly payment that the borrower owes for March. A servicer, however, may not require that a borrower make the March payment as a condition for complying with its obligations under § 1024.35 with respect to the notice of error on the February payment.