Conventional loan

“Conventional” just means that the loan is not part of a specific government program. Conventional loans typically cost less than FHA loans but can be more difficult to get.

There are two main categories of conventional loans:

Conforming loans have maximum loan amounts that are set by the government. Other rules for conforming loans are set by Fannie Mae or Freddie Mac, companies that provide backing for conforming loans.

Non-conforming loans are less standardized. Eligibility, pricing, and features can vary widely by lender, so it’s particularly important to shop around and compare several offers.

Mortgage insurance

Required for some conventional loans.
More on mortgage insurance.

Conventional (conforming)

$424,100 or less


$424,100 to county limit

Jumbo (non-conforming)

up to $1-2 million

  • Jumbo loan for amounts greater than the Conforming Jumbo limit in your county, up to $1-2 million.
  • Rules vary by lender, but usually need good credit and a high down payment to qualify.

Non-conforming (other)

  • Loans of any size that do not fall into another category.
  • Some loans in this category are intended for borrowers with poor credit. These loans tend to have high rates and may contain risky features. These can include:
    • Loans that allow for minimal documentation of your income.
    • Loans that allow you to pay only the interest or allow your loan balance to increase.
  • Some lenders also offer niche programs for mainstream borrowers with unusual circumstances. These can include:
    • Loans for properties with non-standard features (such as more than 10 acres of land, properties with agricultural income, or properties that are difficult to appraise).
    • Loans for affluent customers with tricky finances, such as self-employed borrowers, or newly graduated doctors.

Many of the loans that got people in trouble during the crisis fell in the “non-conforming (other)” category.

If you are considering a non-conforming loan, consult with multiple lenders. Ask if you could qualify for a conforming or FHA loan instead. Never make a final decision about which loan to take before getting your official Loan Estimates.

Mortgage insurance: what you need to know

Mortgage insurance helps you get a loan you wouldn’t otherwise be able to. If you can’t afford a 20 percent down payment, you will likely have to pay for mortgage insurance. You may choose to get a conventional loan with private mortgage insurance (PMI), or an FHA, VA, or USDA loan.

Mortgage insurance usually adds to your costs. Depending on the loan type, you will pay monthly mortgage insurance premiums, an upfront mortgage insurance fee, or both.

Mortgage insurance protects the lender if you fall behind on your payments. It does not protect you. Your credit score will suffer and you may face foreclosure if you don’t pay your mortgage on time.

Learn more about mortgage insurance.

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