Comment for 1005.12 Relation to Other Laws
12(a) Relation to Truth in Lending
1. Determining applicable regulation. i. For transactions involving access devices that also function as credit cards, whether Regulation E or Regulation Z (12 CFR part 1026) applies depends on the nature of the transaction. For example, if the transaction solely involves an extension of credit, and does not include a debit to a checking account (or other consumer asset account), the liability limitations and error resolution requirements of Regulation Z apply. If the transaction debits a checking account only (with no credit extended), the provisions of Regulation E apply. If the transaction debits a checking account but also draws on an overdraft line of credit attached to the account, Regulation E's liability limitations apply, in addition to §§ 1026.13(d) and (g) of Regulation Z (which apply because of the extension of credit associated with the overdraft feature on the checking account). If a consumer's access device is also a credit card and the device is used to make unauthorized withdrawals from a checking account, but also is used to obtain unauthorized cash advances directly from a line of credit that is separate from the checking account, both Regulation E and Regulation Z apply.
ii. The following examples illustrate these principles:
A. A consumer has a card that can be used either as a credit card or a debit card. When used as a debit card, the card draws on the consumer's checking account. When used as a credit card, the card draws only on a separate line of credit. If the card is stolen and used as a credit card to make purchases or to get cash advances at an ATM from the line of credit, the liability limits and error resolution provisions of Regulation Z apply; Regulation E does not apply.
B. In the same situation, if the card is stolen and is used as a debit card to make purchases or to get cash withdrawals at an ATM from the checking account, the liability limits and error resolution provisions of Regulation E apply; Regulation Z does not apply.
C. In the same situation, assume the card is stolen and used both as a debit card and as a credit card; for example, the thief makes some purchases using the card as a debit card, and other purchases using the card as a credit card. Here, the liability limits and error resolution provisions of Regulation E apply to the unauthorized transactions in which the card was used as a debit card, and the corresponding provisions of Regulation Z apply to the unauthorized transactions in which the card was used as a credit card.
D. Assume a somewhat different type of card, one that draws on the consumer's checking account and can also draw on an overdraft line of credit attached to the checking account. There is no separate line of credit, only the overdraft line, associated with the card. In this situation, if the card is stolen and used, the liability limits and the error resolution provisions of Regulation E apply. In addition, if the use of the card has resulted in accessing the overdraft line of credit, the error resolution provisions of §§ 1026.13(d) and (g) of Regulation Z also apply, but not the other error resolution provisions of Regulation Z.
2. Issuance rules. For access devices that also constitute credit cards, the issuance rules of Regulation E apply if the only credit feature is a preexisting credit line attached to the asset account to cover overdrafts (or to maintain a specified minimum balance) or an overdraft service, as defined in § 1005.17(a). Regulation Z (12 CFR part 1026) rules apply if there is another type of credit feature; for example, one permitting direct extensions of credit that do not involve the asset account.
3. Overdraft service. The addition of an overdraft service, as that term is defined in § 1005.17(a), to an accepted access device does not constitute the addition of a credit feature subject to Regulation Z. Instead, the provisions of Regulation E apply, including the liability limitations (§ 1005.6) and the requirement to obtain consumer consent to the service before any fees or charges for paying an overdraft may be assessed on the account (§ 1005.17).
12(b) Preemption of Inconsistent State Laws
1. Specific determinations. The regulation prescribes standards for determining whether state laws that govern EFTs, and state laws regarding gift certificates, store gift cards, or general-use prepaid cards that govern dormancy, inactivity, or service fees, or expiration dates, are preempted by the Act and the regulation. A state law that is inconsistent may be preempted even if the Bureau has not issued a determination. However, nothing in § 1005.12(b) provides a financial institution with immunity for violations of state law if the institution chooses not to make state disclosures and the Bureau later determines that the state law is not preempted.
2. Preemption determination. The Bureau recognizes state law preemption determinations made by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System prior to July 21, 2011, until and unless the Bureau makes and publishes any contrary determination. The Board of Governors determined that certain provisions in the state law of Michigan are preempted by the Federal law, effective March 30, 1981:
i. Definition of unauthorized use. Section 5(4) is preempted to the extent that it relates to the section of state law governing consumer liability for unauthorized use of an access device.
ii. Consumer liability for unauthorized use of an account. Section 14 is inconsistent with § 1005.6 and is less protective of the consumer than the Federal law. The state law places liability on the consumer for the unauthorized use of an account in cases involving the consumer's negligence. Under the Federal law, a consumer's liability for unauthorized use is not related to the consumer's negligence and depends instead on the consumer's promptness in reporting the loss or theft of the access device.
iii. Error resolution. Section 15 is preempted because it is inconsistent with § 1005.11 and is less protective of the consumer than the Federal law. The state law allows financial institutions up to 70 days to resolve errors, whereas the Federal law generally requires errors to be resolved within 45 days.
iv. Receipts and periodic statements. Sections 17 and 18 are preempted because they are inconsistent with § 1005.9. The state provisions require a different disclosure of information than does the Federal law. The receipt provision is also preempted because it allows the consumer to be charged for receiving a receipt if a machine cannot furnish one at the time of a transfer.