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§ 1003.2 Definitions.

In this part:

(a) Act means the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) (12 U.S.C. 2801 et seq.), as amended.

(b) Application

1. Consistency with Regulation B. Bureau interpretations that appear in the official commentary to Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity Act, 12 CFR part 1002, Supplement I) are generally applicable to the definition of application under Regulation C. However, under Regulation C the definition of an application does not include prequalification requests.

2. Prequalification. A prequalification request is a request by a prospective loan applicant (other than a request for preapproval) for a preliminary determination on whether the prospective loan applicant would likely qualify for credit under an institution's standards, or for a determination on the amount of credit for which the prospective applicant would likely qualify. Some institutions evaluate prequalification requests through a procedure that is separate from the institution's normal loan application process; others use the same process. In either case, Regulation C does not require an institution to report prequalification requests on the loan/application register, even though these requests may constitute applications under Regulation B for purposes of adverse action notices.

3. Requests for preapproval. To be a preapproval program as defined in § 1003.2(b)(2), the written commitment issued under the program must result from a comprehensive review of the creditworthiness of the applicant, including such verification of income, resources, and other matters as is typically done by the institution as part of its normal credit evaluation program. In addition to conditions involving the identification of a suitable property and verification that no material change has occurred in the applicant's financial condition or creditworthiness, the written commitment may be subject only to other conditions (unrelated to the financial condition or creditworthiness of the applicant) that the lender ordinarily attaches to a traditional home mortgage application approval. These conditions are limited to conditions such as requiring an acceptable title insurance binder or a certificate indicating clear termite inspection, and, in the case where the applicant plans to use the proceeds from the sale of the applicant's present home to purchase a new home, a settlement statement showing adequate proceeds from the sale of the present home. Regardless of its name, a program that satisfies the definition of a preapproval program in § 1003.2(b)(2) is a preapproval program for purposes of Regulation C. Conversely, a program that a financial institution describes as a “preapproval program” that does not satisfy the requirements of § 1003.2(b)(2) is not a preapproval program for purposes of Regulation C. If a financial institution does not regularly use the procedures specified in § 1003.2(b)(2), but instead considers requests for preapprovals on an ad hoc basis, the financial institution need not treat ad hoc requests as part of a preapproval program for purposes of Regulation C. A financial institution should, however, be generally consistent in following uniform procedures for considering such ad hoc requests.

See interpretation of 2(b) Application in Supplement I

(1) In general. Application means an oral or written request for a covered loan that is made in accordance with procedures used by a financial institution for the type of credit requested.

(2) Preapproval programs. A request for preapproval for a home purchase loan, other than a home purchase loan that will be an open-end line of credit, a reverse mortgage, or secured by a multifamily dwelling, is an application under this section if the request is reviewed under a program in which the financial institution, after a comprehensive analysis of the creditworthiness of the applicant, issues a written commitment to the applicant valid for a designated period of time to extend a home purchase loan up to a specified amount. The written commitment may not be subject to conditions other than:

(i) Conditions that require the identification of a suitable property;

(ii) Conditions that require that no material change has occurred in the applicant's financial condition or creditworthiness prior to closing; and

(iii) Limited conditions that are not related to the financial condition or creditworthiness of the applicant that the financial institution ordinarily attaches to a traditional home mortgage application.

(c) Branch office means:

(1) Any office of a bank, savings association, or credit union that is considered a branch by the Federal or State supervisory agency applicable to that institution, excluding automated teller machines and other free-standing electronic terminals; and

1. Credit unions. For purposes of Regulation C, a “branch” of a credit union is any office where member accounts are established or loans are made, whether or not the office has been approved as a branch by a Federal or State agency. (See 12 U.S.C. 1752.)

2. Bank, savings association, or credit unions. A branch office of a bank, savings association, or credit union does not include a loan-production office if the loan-production office is not considered a branch by the Federal or State supervisory authority applicable to that institution. A branch office also does not include the office of an affiliate or of a third party, such as a third-party broker.

See interpretation of Paragraph 2(c)(1) in Supplement I

(2) Any office of a for-profit mortgage-lending institution (other than a bank, savings association, or credit union) that takes applications from the public for covered loans. A for-profit mortgage-lending institution (other than a bank, savings association, or credit union) is also deemed to have a branch office in an MSA or in an MD, if, in the preceding calendar year, it received applications for, originated, or purchased five or more covered loans related to property located in that MSA or MD, respectively.

1. General. A branch office of a for-profit mortgage lending institution, other than a bank savings association or credit union, does not include the office of an affiliate or of a third party, such as a third-party broker.

See interpretation of Paragraph 2(c)(2) in Supplement I

(d) Closed-end mortgage loan means an extension of credit that is secured by a lien on a dwelling and that is not an open-end line of credit under paragraph (o) of this section.

1. Dwelling-secured. Section 1003.2(d) defines a closed-end mortgage loan as an extension of credit that is secured by a lien on a dwelling and that is not an open-end line of credit under § 1003.2(o). Thus, for example, a loan to purchase a dwelling and secured only by a personal guarantee is not a closed-end mortgage loan because it is not dwelling-secured.

2. Extension of credit. Under § 1003.2(d), a dwelling-secured loan is not a closed-end mortgage loan unless it involves an extension of credit. For example, some transactions completed pursuant to installment sales contracts, such as some land contracts, depending on the facts and circumstances, may or may not involve extensions of credit rendering the transactions closed-end mortgage loans. In general, extension of credit under § 1003.2(d) refers to the granting of credit only pursuant to a new debt obligation. Thus, except as described in comments 2(d)-2.i and .ii, if a transaction modifies, renews, extends, or amends the terms of an existing debt obligation, but the existing debt obligation is not satisfied and replaced, the transaction is not a closed-end mortgage loan under § 1003.2(d) because there has been no new extension of credit. The phrase extension of credit thus is defined differently under Regulation C than under Regulation B, 12 CFR part 1002.

i. Assumptions. For purposes of Regulation C, an assumption is a transaction in which an institution enters into a written agreement accepting a new borrower in place of an existing borrower as the obligor on an existing debt obligation. For purposes of Regulation C, assumptions include successor-in-interest transactions, in which an individual succeeds the prior owner as the property owner and then assumes the existing debt secured by the property. Under § 1003.2(d), assumptions are extensions of credit even if the new borrower merely assumes the existing debt obligation and no new debt obligation is created. See also comment 2(j)-5.

ii. New York State consolidation, extension, and modification agreements. A transaction completed pursuant to a New York State consolidation, extension, and modification agreement and classified as a supplemental mortgage under New York Tax Law section 255, such that the borrower owes reduced or no mortgage recording taxes, is an extension of credit under § 1003.2(d). Comments 2(i)-1, 2(j)-5, and 2(p)-2 clarify whether such transactions are home improvement loans, home purchase loans, or refinancings, respectively. Section 1003.3(c)(13) provides an exclusion from the reporting requirement for a preliminary transaction providing or, in the case of an application, proposing to provide new funds to the borrower in advance of being consolidated within the same calendar year into a supplemental mortgage under New York Tax Law section 255. See comment 3(c)(13)-1 concerning how to report a supplemental mortgage under New York Tax Law section 255 in this situation.

See interpretation of 2(d) Closed-end Mortgage Loan in Supplement I

(e) Covered loan means a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit that is not an excluded transaction under § 1003.3(c).

(f) Dwelling means a residential structure, whether or not attached to real property. The term includes but is not limited to a detached home, an individual condominium or cooperative unit, a manufactured home or other factory-built home, or a multifamily residential structure or community.

1. General. The definition of a dwelling is not limited to the principal or other residence of the applicant or borrower, and thus includes vacation or second homes and investment properties.

2. Multifamily residential structures and communities. A dwelling also includes a multifamily residential structure or community such as an apartment, condominium, cooperative building or housing complex, or a manufactured home community. A loan related to a manufactured home community is secured by a dwelling for purposes of § 1003.2(f) even if it is not secured by any individual manufactured homes, but only by the land that constitutes the manufactured home community including sites for manufactured homes. However, a loan related to a multifamily residential structure or community that is not a manufactured home community is not secured by a dwelling for purposes of § 1003.2(f) if it is not secured by any individual dwelling units and is, for example, instead secured only by property that only includes common areas, or is secured only by an assignment of rents or dues.

3. Exclusions. Recreational vehicles, including boats, campers, travel trailers, and park model recreational vehicles, are not considered dwellings for purposes of § 1003.2(f), regardless of whether they are used as residences. Houseboats, floating homes, and mobile homes constructed before June 15, 1976, are also excluded, regardless of whether they are used as residences. Also excluded are transitory residences such as hotels, hospitals, college dormitories, and recreational vehicle parks, and structures originally designed as dwellings but used exclusively for commercial purposes, such as homes converted to daycare facilities or professional offices.

4. Mixed-use properties. A property used for both residential and commercial purposes, such as a building containing apartment units and retail space, is a dwelling if the property's primary use is residential. An institution may use any reasonable standard to determine the primary use of the property, such as by square footage or by the income generated. An institution may select the standard to apply on a case-by-case basis.

5. Properties with service and medical components. For purposes of § 1003.2(f), a property used for both long-term housing and to provide related services, such as assisted living for senior citizens or supportive housing for persons with disabilities, is a dwelling and does not have a non-residential purpose merely because the property is used for both housing and to provide services. However, transitory residences that are used to provide such services are not dwellings. See comment 2(f)-3. Properties that are used to provide medical care, such as skilled nursing, rehabilitation, or long-term medical care, also are not dwellings. See comment 2(f)-3. If a property that is used for both long-term housing and to provide related services also is used to provide medical care, the property is a dwelling if its primary use is residential. An institution may use any reasonable standard to determine the property's primary use, such as by square footage, income generated, or number of beds or units allocated for each use. An institution may select the standard to apply on a case-by-case basis.

See interpretation of 2(f) Dwelling in Supplement I

(g) Financial institution means a depository financial institution or a nondepository financial institution, where:

1. Preceding calendar year and preceding December 31. The definition of financial institution refers both to the preceding calendar year and the preceding December 31. These terms refer to the calendar year and the December 31 preceding the current calendar year. For example, in 2019, the preceding calendar year is 2018 and the preceding December 31 is December 31, 2018. Accordingly, in 2019, Financial Institution A satisfies the asset-size threshold described in § 1003.2(g)(1)(i) if its assets exceeded the threshold specified in comment 2(g)-2 on December 31, 2018. Likewise, in 2020, Financial Institution A does not meet the loan-volume test described in § 1003.2(g)(1)(v)(A) if it originated fewer than 25 closed-end mortgage loans during either 2018 or 2019.

2. Adjustment of exemption threshold for banks, savings associations, and credit unions. For data collection in 2019, the asset-size exemption threshold is $46 million. Banks, savings associations, and credit unions with assets at or below $46 million as of December 31, 2018, are exempt from collecting data for 2019.

3. Merger or acquisition - coverage of surviving or newly formed institution. After a merger or acquisition, the surviving or newly formed institution is a financial institution under § 1003.2(g) if it, considering the combined assets, location, and lending activity of the surviving or newly formed institution and the merged or acquired institutions or acquired branches, satisfies the criteria included in § 1003.2(g). For example, A and B merge. The surviving or newly formed institution meets the loan threshold described in § 1003.2(g)(1)(v)(B) if the surviving or newly formed institution, A, and B originated a combined total of at least 500 open-end lines of credit in each of the two preceding calendar years. Likewise, the surviving or newly formed institution meets the asset-size threshold in § 1003.2(g)(1)(i) if its assets and the combined assets of A and B on December 31 of the preceding calendar year exceeded the threshold described in § 1003.2(g)(1)(i). Comment 2(g)-4 discusses a financial institution's responsibilities during the calendar year of a merger.

4. Merger or acquisition - coverage for calendar year of merger or acquisition. The scenarios described below illustrate a financial institution's responsibilities for the calendar year of a merger or acquisition. For purposes of these illustrations, a “covered institution” means a financial institution, as defined in § 1003.2(g), that is not exempt from reporting under § 1003.3(a), and “an institution that is not covered” means either an institution that is not a financial institution, as defined in § 1003.2(g), or an institution that is exempt from reporting under § 1003.3(a).

i. Two institutions that are not covered merge. The surviving or newly formed institution meets all of the requirements necessary to be a covered institution. No data collection is required for the calendar year of the merger (even though the merger creates an institution that meets all of the requirements necessary to be a covered institution). When a branch office of an institution that is not covered is acquired by another institution that is not covered, and the acquisition results in a covered institution, no data collection is required for the calendar year of the acquisition.

ii. A covered institution and an institution that is not covered merge. The covered institution is the surviving institution, or a new covered institution is formed. For the calendar year of the merger, data collection is required for covered loans and applications handled in the offices of the merged institution that was previously covered and is optional for covered loans and applications handled in offices of the merged institution that was previously not covered. When a covered institution acquires a branch office of an institution that is not covered, data collection is optional for covered loans and applications handled by the acquired branch office for the calendar year of the acquisition.

iii. A covered institution and an institution that is not covered merge. The institution that is not covered is the surviving institution, or a new institution that is not covered is formed. For the calendar year of the merger, data collection is required for covered loans and applications handled in offices of the previously covered institution that took place prior to the merger. After the merger date, data collection is optional for covered loans and applications handled in the offices of the institution that was previously covered. When an institution remains not covered after acquiring a branch office of a covered institution, data collection is required for transactions of the acquired branch office that take place prior to the acquisition. Data collection by the acquired branch office is optional for transactions taking place in the remainder of the calendar year after the acquisition.

iv. Two covered institutions merge. The surviving or newly formed institution is a covered institution. Data collection is required for the entire calendar year of the merger. The surviving or newly formed institution files either a consolidated submission or separate submissions for that calendar year. When a covered institution acquires a branch office of a covered institution, data collection is required for the entire calendar year of the merger. Data for the acquired branch office may be submitted by either institution.

5. Originations. Whether an institution is a financial institution depends in part on whether the institution originated at least 25 closed-end mortgage loans in each of the two preceding calendar years or at least 500 open-end lines of credit in each of the two preceding calendar years. Comments 4(a)-2 through -4 discuss whether activities with respect to a particular closed-end mortgage loan or open-end line of credit constitute an origination for purposes of § 1003.2(g).

6. Branches of foreign banks - treated as banks. A Federal branch or a State-licensed or insured branch of a foreign bank that meets the definition of a “bank” under section 3(a)(1) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813(a)) is a bank for the purposes of § 1003.2(g).

7. Branches and offices of foreign banks and other entities - treated as nondepository financial institutions. A Federal agency, State-licensed agency, State-licensed uninsured branch of a foreign bank, commercial lending company owned or controlled by a foreign bank, or entity operating under section 25 or 25A of the Federal Reserve Act, 12 U.S.C. 601 and 611 (Edge Act and agreement corporations) may not meet the definition of “bank” under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and may thereby fail to satisfy the definition of a depository financial institution under § 1003.2(g)(1). An entity is nonetheless a financial institution if it meets the definition of nondepository financial institution under § 1003.2(g)(2).

See interpretation of 2(g) Financial Institution in Supplement I

(1) Depository financial institution means a bank, savings association, or credit union that:

(i) On the preceding December 31 had assets in excess of the asset threshold established and published annually by the Bureau for coverage by the Act, based on the year-to-year change in the average of the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers, not seasonally adjusted, for each twelve month period ending in November, with rounding to the nearest million;

(ii) On the preceding December 31, had a home or branch office in an MSA;

(iii) In the preceding calendar year, originated at least one home purchase loan or refinancing of a home purchase loan, secured by a first lien on a one- to four-unit dwelling;

(iv) Meets one or more of the following two criteria:

(A) The institution is federally insured or regulated; or

(B) Any loan referred to in paragraph (g)(1)(iii) of this section was insured, guaranteed, or supplemented by a Federal agency, or was intended by the institution for sale to the Federal National Mortgage Association or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; and

(v) Meets at least one of the following criteria:

(A) In each of the two preceding calendar years, originated at least 25 closed-end mortgage loans that are not excluded from this part pursuant to § 1003.3(c)(1) through (10) or (13); or

(B) In each of the two preceding calendar years, originated at least 500 open-end lines of credit that are not excluded from this part pursuant to § 1003.3(c)(1) through (10); and

(2) Nondepository financial institution means a for-profit mortgage-lending institution (other than a bank, savings association, or credit union) that:

(i) On the preceding December 31, had a home or branch office in an MSA; and

(ii) Meets at least one of the following criteria:

(A) In each of the two preceding calendar years, originated at least 25 closed-end mortgage loans that are not excluded from this part pursuant to § 1003.3(c)(1) through (10) or (13); or

(B) In each of the two preceding calendar years, originated at least 500 open-end lines of credit that are not excluded from this part pursuant to § 1003.3(c)(1) through (10).

(h) [Reserved]

(i) Home improvement loan means a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit that is for the purpose, in whole or in part, of repairing, rehabilitating, remodeling, or improving a dwelling or the real property on which the dwelling is located.

1. General. Section 1003.2(i) defines a home improvement loan as a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit that is for the purpose, in whole or in part, of repairing, rehabilitating, remodeling, or improving a dwelling or the real property on which the dwelling is located. For example, a closed-end mortgage loan obtained to repair a dwelling by replacing a roof is a home improvement loan under § 1003.2(i). A loan or line of credit is a home improvement loan even if only a part of the purpose is for repairing, rehabilitating, remodeling, or improving a dwelling. For example, an open-end line of credit obtained in part to remodel a kitchen and in part to pay college tuition is a home improvement loan under § 1003.2(i). Similarly, for example, a loan that is completed pursuant to a New York State consolidation, extension, and modification agreement and that is classified as a supplemental mortgage under New York Tax Law section 255, such that the borrower owes reduced or no mortgage recording taxes, is a home improvement loan if any of the loan's funds are for home improvement purposes. See also comment 2(d)-2.ii.

2. Improvements to real property. Home improvements include improvements both to a dwelling and to the real property on which the dwelling is located (for example, installation of a swimming pool, construction of a garage, or landscaping).

3. Commercial and other loans. A home improvement loan may include a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit originated outside an institution's residential mortgage lending division, such as a loan or line of credit to improve an apartment building originated in the commercial loan department.

4. Mixed-use property. A closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit to improve a multifamily dwelling used for residential and commercial purposes (for example, a building containing apartment units and retail space), or the real property on which such a dwelling is located, is a home improvement loan if the loan's proceeds are used either to improve the entire property (for example, to replace the heating system), or if the proceeds are used primarily to improve the residential portion of the property. An institution may use any reasonable standard to determine the primary use of the loan proceeds. An institution may select the standard to apply on a case-by-case basis. See comment 3(c)(10)-3.ii for guidance on loans to improve primarily the commercial portion of a dwelling other than a multifamily dwelling.

5. Multiple-purpose loans. A closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit may be used for multiple purposes. For example, a closed-end mortgage loan that is a home improvement loan under § 1003.2(i) may also be a refinancing under § 1003.2(p) if the transaction is a cash-out refinancing and the funds will be used to improve a home. Such a transaction is a multiple-purpose loan. Comment 4(a)(3)-3 provides details about how to report multiple-purpose covered loans.

6. Statement of borrower. In determining whether a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit, or an application for a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit, is for home improvement purposes, an institution may rely on the applicant's or borrower's stated purpose(s) for the loan or line of credit at the time the application is received or the credit decision is made. An institution need not confirm that the borrower actually uses any of the funds for the stated purpose(s).

See interpretation of 2(i) Home Improvement Loan in Supplement I

(j) Home purchase loan means a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit that is for the purpose, in whole or in part, of purchasing a dwelling.

1. Multiple properties. A home purchase loan includes a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit secured by one dwelling and used to purchase another dwelling. For example, if a person obtains a home-equity loan or a reverse mortgage secured by dwelling A to purchase dwelling B, the home-equity loan or the reverse mortgage is a home purchase loan under § 1003.2(j).

2. Commercial and other loans. A home purchase loan may include a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit originated outside an institution's residential mortgage lending division, such as a loan or line of credit to purchase an apartment building originated in the commercial loan department.

3. Construction and permanent financing. A home purchase loan includes both a combined construction/permanent loan or line of credit, and the separate permanent financing that replaces a construction-only loan or line of credit for the same borrower at a later time. A home purchase loan does not include a construction-only loan or line of credit that is designed to be replaced by separate permanent financing extended by any financial institution to the same borrower at a later time or that is extended to a person exclusively to construct a dwelling for sale, which are excluded from Regulation C as temporary financing under § 1003.3(c)(3). Comments 3(c)(3)-1 and -2 provide additional details about transactions that are excluded as temporary financing.

4. Second mortgages that finance the downpayments on first mortgages. If an institution making a first mortgage loan to a home purchaser also makes a second mortgage loan or line of credit to the same purchaser to finance part or all of the home purchaser's downpayment, both the first mortgage loan and the second mortgage loan or line of credit are home purchase loans.

5. Assumptions. Under § 1003.2(j), an assumption is a home purchase loan when an institution enters into a written agreement accepting a new borrower as the obligor on an existing obligation to finance the new borrower's purchase of the dwelling securing the existing obligation, if the resulting obligation is a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit. A transaction in which borrower B finances the purchase of borrower A's dwelling by assuming borrower A's existing debt obligation and that is completed pursuant to a New York State consolidation, extension, and modification agreement and is classified as a supplemental mortgage under New York Tax Law section 255, such that the borrower owes reduced or no mortgage recording taxes, is an assumption and a home purchase loan. See comment 2(d)-2.ii. On the other hand, a transaction in which borrower B, a successor-in-interest, assumes borrower A's existing debt obligation only after acquiring title to borrower A's dwelling is not a home purchase loan because borrower B did not assume the debt obligation for the purpose of purchasing a dwelling. See § 1003.4(a)(3) and comment 4(a)(3)-4 for guidance about how to report covered loans that are not home improvement loans, home purchase loans, or refinancings.

6. Multiple-purpose loans. A closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit may be used for multiple purposes. For example, a closed-end mortgage loan that is a home purchase loan under § 1003.2(j) may also be a home improvement loan under § 1003.2(i) and a refinancing under § 1003.2(p) if the transaction is a cash-out refinancing and the funds will be used to purchase and improve a dwelling. Such a transaction is a multiple-purpose loan. Comment 4(a)(3)-3 provides details about how to report multiple-purpose covered loans.

See interpretation of 2(j) Home Purchase Loan in Supplement I

(k) Loan/Application Register means both the record of information required to be collected pursuant to § 1003.4 and the record submitted annually or quarterly, as applicable, pursuant to § 1003.5(a).

(l) Manufactured home means any residential structure as defined under regulations of the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development establishing manufactured home construction and safety standards (24 CFR 3280.2). For purposes of § 1003.4(a)(5), the term also includes a multifamily dwelling that is a manufactured home community.

1. Definition of a manufactured home. The definition in § 1003.2(l) refers to the Federal building code for manufactured housing established by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) (24 CFR part 3280.2). Modular or other factory-built homes that do not meet the HUD code standards are not manufactured homes for purposes of § 1003.2(l). Recreational vehicles are excluded from the HUD code standards pursuant to 24 CFR 3282.8(g) and are also excluded from the definition of dwelling for purposes of § 1003.2(f). See comment 2(f)-3.

2. Identification. A manufactured home will generally bear a data plate affixed in a permanent manner near the main electrical panel or other readily accessible and visible location noting its compliance with the Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards in force at the time of manufacture and providing other information about its manufacture pursuant to 24 CFR 3280.5. A manufactured home will generally also bear a HUD Certification Label pursuant to 24 CFR 3280.11.

See interpretation of 2(l) Manufactured Home in Supplement I

(m) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and Metropolitan Division (MD). (1) Metropolitan Statistical Area or MSA means a Metropolitan Statistical Area as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

1. Use of terms “Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA)” and “Metropolitan Division (MD).” The U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) defines Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and Metropolitan Divisions (MDs) to provide nationally consistent definitions for collecting, tabulating, and publishing Federal statistics for a set of geographic areas. For all purposes under Regulation C, if an MSA is divided by OMB into MDs, the appropriate geographic unit to be used is the MD; if an MSA is not so divided by OMB into MDs, the appropriate geographic unit to be used is the MSA.

See interpretation of 2(m) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MD) or Metropolitan Division (MD). in Supplement I

(2) Metropolitan Division (MD) means a Metropolitan Division of an MSA, as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

(n) Multifamily dwelling means a dwelling, regardless of construction method, that contains five or more individual dwelling units.

1. Multifamily residential structures. The definition of dwelling in § 1003.2(f) includes multifamily residential structures and the corresponding commentary provides guidance on when such residential structures are included in that definition. See comments 2(f)-2 through -5.

2. Special reporting requirements for multifamily dwellings. The definition of multifamily dwelling in § 1003.2(n) includes a dwelling, regardless of construction method, that contains five or more individual dwelling units. Covered loans secured by a multifamily dwelling are subject to additional reporting requirements under § 1003.4(a)(32), but are not subject to reporting requirements under § 1003.4(a)(4), (10)(iii), (23), (29), or (30).

3. Separate dwellings. A covered loan secured by five or more separate dwellings, which are not multifamily dwellings, in more than one location is not a loan secured by a multifamily dwelling. For example, assume a landlord uses a covered loan to improve five or more dwellings, each with one individual dwelling unit, located in different parts of a town, and the loan is secured by those properties. The covered loan is not secured by a multifamily dwelling as defined by § 1003.2(n). Likewise, a covered loan secured by five or more separate dwellings that are located within a multifamily dwelling, but which is not secured by the entire multifamily dwelling (e.g., an entire apartment building or housing complex), is not secured by a multifamily dwelling as defined by § 1003.2(n). For example, assume that an investor purchases 10 individual unit condominiums in a 100-unit condominium complex using a covered loan. The covered loan would not be secured by a multifamily dwelling as defined by § 1003.2(n). In both of these situations, a financial institution reporting a covered loan or application secured by these separate dwellings would not be subject to the additional reporting requirements for covered loans secured by or applications proposed to be secured by multifamily dwellings under § 1003.4(a)(32). However, a financial institution would report the information required by § 1003.4(a)(4), (a)(10)(iii), and (a)(23), (29), and (30), which is not applicable to covered loans secured by and applications proposed to be secured by multifamily dwellings. See comment 2(n)-2. In addition, in both of these situations, the financial institution reports the number of individual dwelling units securing the covered loan or proposed to secure a covered loan as required by § 1003.4(a)(31). See comment 4(a)(31)-3.

See interpretation of 2(n) Multifamily Dwelling in Supplement I

(o) Open-end line of credit means an extension of credit that:

1. General. Section 1003.2(o) defines an open-end line of credit as an extension of credit that is secured by a lien on a dwelling and that is an open-end credit plan as defined in Regulation Z, 12 CFR 1026.2(a)(20), but without regard to whether the credit is consumer credit, as defined in § 1026.2(a)(12), is extended by a creditor, as defined in § 1026.2(a)(17), or is extended to a consumer, as defined in § 1026.2(a)(11). Aside from these distinctions, institutions may rely on 12 CFR 1026.2(a)(20) and its related commentary in determining whether a transaction is an open-end line of credit under § 1003.2(o). For example, assume a business-purpose transaction that is exempt from Regulation Z pursuant to § 1026.3(a)(1) but that otherwise is open-end credit under Regulation Z § 1026.2(a)(20). The business-purpose transaction is an open-end line of credit under Regulation C, provided the other requirements of § 1003.2(o) are met. Similarly, assume a transaction in which the person extending open-end credit is a financial institution under § 1003.2(g) but is not a creditor under Regulation Z, § 1026.2(a)(17). In this example, the transaction is an open-end line of credit under Regulation C, provided the other requirements of § 1003.2(o) are met.

2. Extension of credit. Extension of credit has the same meaning under § 1003.2(o) as under § 1003.2(d) and comment 2(d)-2. Thus, for example, a renewal of an open-end line of credit is not an extension of credit under § 1003.2(o) and is not covered by Regulation C unless the existing debt obligation is satisfied and replaced. Likewise, under § 1003.2(o), each draw on an open-end line of credit is not an extension of credit.

See interpretation of 2(o) Open-End Line of Credit in Supplement I

(1) Is secured by a lien on a dwelling; and

(2) Is an open-end credit plan as defined in Regulation Z, 12 CFR 1026.2(a)(20), but without regard to whether the credit is consumer credit, as defined in § 1026.2(a)(12), is extended by a creditor, as defined in § 1026.2(a)(17), or is extended to a consumer, as defined in § 1026.2(a)(11).

(p) Refinancing means a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit in which a new, dwelling-secured debt obligation satisfies and replaces an existing, dwelling-secured debt obligation by the same borrower.

1. General. Section 1003.2(p) defines a refinancing as a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit in which a new, dwelling-secured debt obligation satisfies and replaces an existing, dwelling-secured debt obligation by the same borrower. Except as described in comment 2(p)-2, whether a refinancing has occurred is determined by reference to whether, based on the parties' contract and applicable law, the original debt obligation has been satisfied or replaced by a new debt obligation. Whether the original lien is satisfied is irrelevant. For example:

i. A new closed-end mortgage loan that satisfies and replaces one or more existing closed-end mortgage loans is a refinancing under § 1003.2(p).

ii. A new open-end line of credit that satisfies and replaces an existing closed-end mortgage loan is a refinancing under § 1003.2(p).

iii. Except as described in comment 2(p)-2, a new debt obligation that renews or modifies the terms of, but that does not satisfy and replace, an existing debt obligation, is not a refinancing under § 1003.2(p).

2. New York State consolidation, extension, and modification agreements. Where a transaction is completed pursuant to a New York State consolidation, extension, and modification agreement and is classified as a supplemental mortgage under New York Tax Law section§ 255, such that the borrower owes reduced or no mortgage recording taxes, and where, but for the agreement, the transaction would have met the definition of a refinancing under § 1003.2(p), the transaction is considered a refinancing under § 1003.2(p). See also comment 2(d)-2.ii.

3. Existing debt obligation. A closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit that satisfies and replaces one or more existing debt obligations is not a refinancing under § 1003.2(p) unless the existing debt obligation (or obligations) also was secured by a dwelling. For example, assume that a borrower has an existing $30,000 closed-end mortgage loan and obtains a new $50,000 closed-end mortgage loan that satisfies and replaces the existing $30,000 loan. The new $50,000 loan is a refinancing under § 1003.2(p). However, if the borrower obtains a new $50,000 closed-end mortgage loan that satisfies and replaces an existing $30,000 loan secured only by a personal guarantee, the new $50,000 loan is not a refinancing under § 1003.2(p). See § 1003.4(a)(3) and related commentary for guidance about how to report the loan purpose of such transactions, if they are not otherwise excluded under § 1003.3(c).

4. Same borrower. Section 1003.2(p) provides that, even if all of the other requirements of § 1003.2(p) are met, a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit is not a refinancing unless the same borrower undertakes both the existing and the new obligation(s). Under § 1003.2(p), the “same borrower” undertakes both the existing and the new obligation(s) even if only one borrower is the same on both obligations. For example, assume that an existing closed-end mortgage loan (obligation X) is satisfied and replaced by a new closed-end mortgage loan (obligation Y). If borrowers A and B both are obligated on obligation X, and only borrower B is obligated on obligation Y, then obligation Y is a refinancing under § 1003.2(p), assuming the other requirements of § 1003.2(p) are met, because borrower B is obligated on both transactions. On the other hand, if only borrower A is obligated on obligation X, and only borrower B is obligated on obligation Y, then obligation Y is not a refinancing under § 1003.2(p). For example, assume that two spouses are divorcing. If both spouses are obligated on obligation X, but only one spouse is obligated on obligation Y, then obligation Y is a refinancing under § 1003.2(p), assuming the other requirements of § 1003.2(p) are met. On the other hand, if only spouse A is obligated on obligation X, and only spouse B is obligated on obligation Y, then obligation Y is not a refinancing under § 1003.2(p). See § 1003.4(a)(3) and related commentary for guidance about how to report the loan purpose of such transactions, if they are not otherwise excluded under § 1003.3(c).

5. Two or more debt obligations. Section 1003.2(p) provides that, to be a refinancing, a new debt obligation must satisfy and replace an existing debt obligation. Where two or more new obligations replace an existing obligation, each new obligation is a refinancing if, taken together, the new obligations satisfy the existing obligation. Similarly, where one new obligation replaces two or more existing obligations, the new obligation is a refinancing if it satisfies each of the existing obligations.

6. Multiple-purpose loans. A closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit may be used for multiple purposes. For example, a closed-end mortgage loan that is a refinancing under § 1003.2(p) may also be a home improvement loan under § 1003.2(i) and be used for other purposes if the refinancing is a cash-out refinancing and the funds will be used both for home improvement and to pay college tuition. Such a transaction is a multiple-purpose loan. Comment 4(a)(3)-3 provides details about how to report multiple-purpose covered loans.

See interpretation of 2(p) Refinancing in Supplement I

(q) Reverse mortgage means a closed-end mortgage loan or an open-end line of credit that is a reverse mortgage transaction as defined in Regulation Z, 12 CFR 1026.33(a), but without regard to whether the security interest is created in a principal dwelling.