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Homeowners Protection Act (HPA or PMI cancellation act) examination procedures

Published Oct. 1, 2012

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The Homeowners Protection Act of 1998 (HPA or PMI Cancellation Act, or Act) was signed into law on July 29, 1998, became effective on July 29, 1999, and was later amended on Dec. 27, 2000, to provide technical corrections and clarification. The “PMI Cancellation Act” addresses homeowners’ difficulties in canceling private mortgage insurance (PMI) coverage. It establishes provisions for canceling and terminating PMI, sets disclosure and notification requirements, and requires the return of unearned premiums.

The Dodd-Frank Act granted authority to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) to supervise for and enforce compliance with the Homeowners Protection Act with respect to entities within its jurisdiction.

PMI is insurance that protects lenders from the risk of default and foreclosure. PMI allows prospective buyers who cannot, or choose not to, provide significant down payments to obtain mortgage financing at affordable rates. It is used extensively to facilitate “high-ratio” loans (generally, loans in which the loan to value (LTV) ratio exceeds 80 percent). With PMI, the lender can recover costs associated with the resale of foreclosed property, and accrued interest payments or fixed costs, such as taxes or insurance policies, paid prior to resale.

Excessive PMI coverage provides little extra protection for a lender and does not benefit the borrower. In some instances, homeowners have experienced problems in canceling PMI. At other times, lenders may have agreed to terminate coverage when the borrower’s equity reached 20 percent, but the policies and procedures used for canceling or terminating PMI coverage varied widely among lenders. Prior to the Act, homeowners had limited recourse when lenders refused to cancel their PMI coverage. Even homeowners in the few states that had laws pertaining to PMI cancellation or termination noted difficulties in canceling or terminating their PMI policies. The Act now protects homeowners by prohibiting life of loan PMI coverage for borrower-paid PMI products and establishing uniform procedures for the cancellation and termination of PMI policies.