The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) became effective on April 25, 1971. The FCRA is a part of a group of acts contained in the Federal Consumer Credit Protection Act such as the Truth in Lending Act and the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act.
Congress substantively amended the FCRA upon the passage of the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (FACT Act). The FACT Act created many new responsibilities for consumer reporting agencies and users of consumer reports. It contained many new consumer disclosure requirements as well as provisions to address identity theft. In addition, it provided free annual consumer report rights for consumers and improved access to consumer report information to help increase the accuracy of data in the consumer reporting system.
In 2010, Congress passed the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act), which granted rule-making authority under FCRA (except for Section 615(e) (red flag guidelines and regulation) and Section 628 (disposal of records) to the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB). The Dodd-Frank Act also amended two provisions of the FCRA to require the disclosure of a credit score and related information when a credit score is used in taking an adverse action or in risk-based pricing.
On Dec. 21, 2011, the CFPB restated FCRA regulations under its authority at 12 CFR Part 1022 (76 Fed. Reg. 79308).