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Explainer: Federal student loan interest rates to jump


Updated on May 7, 2014

Right now, many students and families across the country are receiving financial aid offers and deciding how to pay for college. Most students will need to shop for student loans now, and some of you have asked us what the new rates will be. While rates aren’t set in stone yet, interest rates on new federal student loans are expected to jump this July.

We’ve updated our Paying for College tool using our best guess of what the rates will be, so you can have a better estimate of what your monthly payment might be after graduation.

Interest rates on most federal student loans are based on a certain type of bond that the Treasury Department issues, known as the ten-year note. The yield is the rate at which investors charge the federal government for borrowing money. Next month, there will be a Treasury bond auction, and that rate will set federal student loan interest rates.

Here’s what federal student loan interest rates on new loans might look like, compared to this past year.

Current and estimated interest rates on federal student loans

Loan type Interest rate on loans taken out between July 2013 and June 2014 Estimated new rate on loans taken out between July 2014 and June 2015
Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans (for undergraduate students) 3.86% 5.09%
Direct Unsubsidized Loans (for graduate/professional students) 5.41% 6.64%
Direct PLUS Loans (for parents and graduate/professional students) 6.41% 7.64%

Higher rates will mean a higher monthly payment after graduation. You can simulate this on your own by using our Paying for College tool, but here’s a quick summary of the changes.

Estimated monthly payment for every $5,000 in balances entering repayment

Loan type Monthly payment for this year’s rate Monthly payment for next year’s rate (estimated) Total increase over ten years
Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans (for undergraduate students) $50.29 $53.25 $355.49
Direct Unsubsidized Loans (for graduate/professional students) $54.04 $57.13 $370.84
Direct PLUS Loans (for parents and graduate/professional students) $56.55 $59.72 $380.59

Yet many students end up borrowing more than $5,000 for their education. For instance, graduate students borrowed an average of approximately $18,600 in PLUS Loans per year, according to the National Center for Education Statistics. With interest rates set to go up, many graduate students who borrow after July will pay an additional $1,400 over ten years of repayment for each year they are in school, compared to this year’s rate.

We’ll be sure to update these rates in our tool once they’re finalized. In the meantime, you should use your Financial Aid Shopping Sheet and our Paying for College tool to help you figure out how your school choice might impact your loan payments after graduation.

Rohit Chopra is the CFPB’s Student Loan Ombudsman. To learn more about the CFPB’s work for students and young Americans, visit


Updated on May 7, 2014:
Today, the Treasury Department released the rate for the ten-year note, which sets the interest rates for federal student loans. Interest rates on new federal student loans taken out between July 2014 and June 2015 will indeed be higher compared to last year’s rates. The actual rates are lower than the previous estimates noted above, which were based on Congressional Budget Office projections. The Department of Education will post the official interest rates, but here is a preview of the rates we expect:

Loan type New interest rate on loans taken out between July 2014 and June 2015
Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans (for undergraduate students): 4.66%
Direct Unsubsidized Loans (for graduate/professional students): 6.21%
Direct PLUS Loans (for parents and graduate/professional students): 7.21%

The Perkins Loans interest rate for undergraduate and graduate/professional students remains fixed at 5 percent.

Choosing a college is a big deal. We can help!


This month, students across the country will receive college acceptance letters. For many people, the excitement of being one step closer to realizing their dream or reaching a major life milestone is coupled with anxiety about how to pay for it and the prospect of taking on student loan debt.

Compare your financial aid offers now.

To help you navigate these new waters, we’ve just launched a crisp new version of our Paying for College tool kit. Making apples-to-apples comparison of your financial aid offers has never been easier. Now you can compare offers from community college, bachelor’s, certificate, and graduate programs. We’ve incorporated a more user-friendly design and reintroduced the GI Bill calculator, which gives servicemembers the ability to calculate the benefits available to them through the GI Bill and tuition assistance programs.

We also heard from you that you wished our tool would provide information that complemented what schools are providing to students in their financial aid packages. We’re currently piloting a way to do just that. More than 2,000 schools have adopted the Financial Aid Shopping Sheet (developed in partnership with the Department of Education), which they’ll send to prospective students this year. Using this shopping sheet, you’ll be able to compare information, like average debt after graduation, side by side. If you don’t have a financial aid offer, we’ll show you where to find cost info for each school.

If you’re considering student loans to help you pay for school, you’re not alone – many students need loans to cover their full cost of attendance. If you have to take out student loans, comparing your options can help you find the student loan best suited for your needs.

We’re excited for your new adventure, and we know that choosing a college is a big deal.

Oh, and — congratulations!

We’re protecting students from predatory lending


Today, we filed a lawsuit against ITT Educational Services, Inc., accusing the for-profit college chain of predatory student lending. We believe that ITT used high-pressure tactics to push many students into expensive private student loans that were likely to end in default.

This is our first public enforcement action against a company in the for-profit college industry.

“Today’s action should serve as a warning to the for-profit college industry that we will be vigilant about protecting students against predatory lending tactics,” said Director Richard Cordray.

You can read the press release, read Director Cordray’s full remarks, and view the formal complaint against ITT.

You can also watch a recording of today’s press conference.

What sunshine for student financial products can show us


Recently, we alerted financial institutions about the potentially risky practice of not readily disclosing arrangements with colleges and universities to market bank accounts, prepaid cards, debit cards, and other financial products to students. Director Cordray called on financial institutions to voluntarily make these agreements available on their websites.

According to a survey of school officials, 69 percent of debit card agreements are already available to the public, since many contracts with public colleges and universities are subject to state open records laws. We identified agreements available in the public domain by checking state open records databases and other websites where agreements were disclosed.

Some financial institutions offer low-cost student financial products as a way of developing long-lasting relationships with students as they start their financial lives. For example, one credit union told us that “over 85 percent of student accounts remain open one year following graduation.” But other financial institutions generate a significant amount of their revenue on these products while students are currently in school.

Here’s how they work

Some of these agreements were difficult to find, but here are a few examples of the different agreements financial institutions have with colleges and universities. We didn’t verify whether these agreements are current, but the examples give us a sense of how some of these agreements work.

1. Direct payments for using school logos

We found several agreements where a financial institution offers a licensing fee in order to use a school’s logo to market its financial products. (In 2008, Congress restricted this practice for student loans, but not for other financial products.) For example, we found an agreement which provides $25 million to a university for use of the school’s logo, among other benefits.

2. Bonuses for recruiting students

Other agreements provide bonus payments based on whether students sign up for a financial institution’s student checking account marketed on campus. For example, one agreement paid a university an upfront payment of $400,000 and an additional bonus of upwards of $200,000 each year if enough new students signed up for the accounts.

3. Discounted prices in exchange for marketing access

Some colleges receive discounted – or even completely free – services in exchange for allowing a provider to market financial products to students. For example, we found many agreements where a financial institution charges a university to transfer loan and scholarship funds to students.

However, some school officials have told us that these charges may be heavily discounted, since these agreements provide the financial institution with unique access to market to students receiving financial aid. This gives the financial institution a foot in the door to generate significant revenue in fees from students, making it worthwhile to provide discounted services to schools.

Committed to transparency?

Many financial institutions offer good products at competitive prices. But as we’ve stated before, voluntarily disclosing these arrangements is a sign of a financial institution’s commitment to transparency when marketing deposit accounts, prepaid cards, financial aid disbursement accounts, and other financial products to students. In doing so, they also want to make sure students know that they have a financial relationship with their school. Responsible financial institutions also want students to know they don’t have to choose their product if they don’t want to.

Actions you can take

Students, schools, financial institutions, or anyone else who wants to share information about the availability of these agreements can email us.

If you are a student, or family member of a student, you can check out our guide to Managing Your College Money and our consumer advisory on accessing student loans and scholarships.

If you have a complaint about a student loan, checking account, or credit card, you can submit a complaint online or by calling (855) 411-2372.

We asked about your student loans and you answered


A few months ago, we took a look at complaints and other input from private student loan borrowers. Many of you told us about stumbling blocks you face when trying to pay down your loans more quickly. In particular, we frequently hear that the process to allocate an extra payment to your loan with the highest interest rate – generally the best way to reduce your overall interest expense – is hard to navigate.

We wanted to help student loan borrowers who are trying to pay down higher-rate loans, so we created a sample letter that borrowers can send to their student loan servicer. This letter tells the loan servicer that any future payment greater than the amount due should be applied to the highest-rate loan.

We also asked student loan servicers to tell us more about their policies when borrowers are looking to pay off their loans more quickly. Many of them responded and here’s some of what we found:

  • Some servicers told us they have changed their policies so that extra payments are allocated to individual loans with the highest interest rate.
  • When making payments through your bank’s online bill pay service, any written instructions you provide to your service may not be forwarded on.
  • Some servicers will allow you to provide standing instructions on how to allocate payments to your account, so you can avoid making calls and writing letters each and every month .
  • Servicers do not seem to be proactively reaching out to consumers who regularly make extra payments on ways to provide instructions.

Check out the full summary of what we heard and tell us your story about your payment processing experience. If you are facing a specific problem with your student loan servicer, you can also submit a complaint online or by calling (855) 411-2372.

We recently finalized a rule to supervise certain nonbank student loan servicers to make sure they’re following the law.

For answers to questions about student loans, check out Ask CFPB and our other work for students.

New feedback system for GI Bill and Tuition Assistance recipients


In April 2012, at Fort Stewart, GA, I was privileged to watch President Obama sign Executive Order 13607: Establishing Principles of Excellence for Educational Institutions Serving Service members, Veterans, Spouses and other Family Members.

The Order directed the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Defense, in consultation with other government agencies, to create a system that would hold educational institutions accountable for the quality of the programs that they provide to those who use military-related education benefits. Its intent was to give military personnel, veterans, and their families the information they need to make informed decisions about where to spend their hard-earned military benefit dollars – and a place to complain if things went wrong.

Today, the CFPB is very pleased to join the Departments of Veterans Affairs, Defense, Education, and Justice, as well as the Federal Trade Commission, in announcing a new online student complaint system where servicemembers, veterans, and their families can report negative experiences at education institutions and training programs administering the Post-9/11 GI Bill, DoD Military Tuition Assistance, and other military-related education benefit programs.

This new feedback system, modeled after CFPB’s complaint system, will help the government identify and address unfair, deceptive, and misleading practices. It’s also intended to have the larger effect of ensuring high-quality academic and student support services for veterans, service members, and their families.

Thanks to all the interagency partners who worked so hard to create this tool that gives military and veteran students the ability to help shape and improve the higher-education experience for themselves, their families and future veterans!

GI Bill recipients can use the new VA GI Bill® Feedback System. DoD Tuition Assistance recipients can provide their feedback as well.